Graphene is a ‘wonder material’ of that there is no doubt, in its pristine single mono layer form its properties are astonishing, stronger then steel, more conductive than copper, more transparent than ITO, the list goes on. However, although some of these capabilities have been demonstrated in the lab under highly controlled conditions, and on extremely small scale, graphene has yet to break through and be truly harnessed for the myriad of speculated applications. The on-going issues of large area graphene production are limiting direct commercialisation but additionally, as with most materials real world, graphene does not live up to its theoretical form making utilisation in devices extremely difficult and making its combination with conventional materials to produce products extremely problematic.
In the ideal world graphene would be applied in many applications in its pristine form, delivering its extremely advantageous properties direct into devices. However, to overcome the manufacturing barriers, and use graphene in synergy with other materials to deliver high performance devices and technologies pristine graphene is not ideal. To harness its power in most situations graphene is not required in its pristine form but in a modified, specifically targeted condition with properties, such as electrical or mechanical characteristics and surface state, designed for the desired application. What is required, is Functionalised Graphene.
Functionalisation of graphene be achieved in several ways, for example doping the layers with additional elements to alter electrical characteristics, stacking of layers to induce additional electronic effects in the material or mechanically changing the layer to give different structural characteristics. Combining multiple functionalisation techniques can deliver graphene with uniquely varying properties. Unfortunately nearly all post production functionalisation techniques are invasive and have detrimental effects on the graphene layer, significantly reducing electrical performance and frequently causing unwanted physical damage.
To overcome these issues, the Paragraf graphene production approach incorporates the ability to functionalise the graphene at point of production, during the formation of the material. Our proprietary technique allows maximum modification of properties, resulting in highly functionalised, tuneable graphene without any of the damaging effects of post-production functionalisation. The result is a spectrum of ‘graphenes’ developed to specifically focus on the requirements of the end application for the material.